For archives, these articles are being stored on TheWE.cc website.
The purpose is to advance understandings of environmental, political,
human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues.

 
Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

A young laborer making metal components at a factory.

Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Photo by gmb-akash.com
A young laborer making metal components at a factory
Dhaka, Bangladesh
gmb-akash.com
Ponds 'caused Bangladesh arsenic'
BBC 15 November 2009
Man-made ponds may be responsible for widespread arsenic contamination of ground water affecting millions of people in Bangladesh, a new study says.
According to the journal Nature Geoscience, the ponds have become a dumping ground for debris which releases arsenic into ground water.
Around 25m people in the country have been exposed to arsenic through water.
Experts have described the situation as the worst mass poisoning of a population in history.
Man-made ponds — often dug with the help of international aid agencies — were originally created to protects villagers from unclean water.
The arsenic enters water supplies from agricultural and industrial waste or from natural deposits in the ground.
Around two million people in Bangladesh suffer from arsenic poisoning.
Chronic ingestion of small doses has been linked to cancer of the bladder, kidney, lung or skin, while large doses can kill immediately.
Arsenic contamination of ground water is a global problem and has occurred in other countries such as Argentina, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand and the United States.
Millions knowingly poison themselves because no alternative water source
But the gravity of the contamination in Bangladesh is unprecedented.
Millions of Bangladeshis knowingly poison themselves because there is often no alternative water source.
Harvard scientist and co-author of the study Rebecca Neumann said that arsenic contamination could be avoided by digging deeper drinking water wells below the ponds, AFP news reported.
Map of Bangladesh.

Boundaries and designations have no endorsement or acceptance by United Nations.
Map by United Nations 2004
Boundaries and designations have no endorsement or acceptance by United Nations
It seemed like a good idea — because rivers and ponds in Bangladesh were contaminated with bacteria.
Bangladeshis switched to wells.
But soon after, in the early ‘80s, researchers realized those wells were harming Bangladeshis with a new poison — arsenic.
The underground sediment of the Ganges Delta contains arsenic.
In 2002, US M.I.T. researchers determined that microbes digesting organic carbon were freeing trapped arsenic.
Using a six-square-mile test plot, researchers found that the organic carbon comes from shallow ponds that were dug to provide soil for flood protection.
The carbon compounds sink in the pondwater and seep underground where bacteria digest them, setting up the perfect chemical conditions to free up the soil’s arsenic.
Groundwater flow then brings the arsenic-rich water to the wells.
      scientificamerican.com
Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

A child works with a sieve at Bhollar Ghat, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

At least 10,000 people, including 2,500 women and more than 1,000 children, are engaged in stone and sand collection from the Bhollar Ghat on the banks of the Piyain River.

Building materials such as stone and sand, and the cement which is made from it, are in short supply in Bangladesh, therefore commanding a high price from building contractors.

But the average income for these workers is around 150 taka (less than 3 Euro) a day.

Photo by gmb-akash.com
A child works with a sieve at Bhollar Ghat, Dhaka, Bangladesh
At least 10,000 people, including 2,500 women and more than 1,000 children, are engaged in stone and sand collection from the Bhollar Ghat on the banks of the Piyain River
Building materials such as stone and sand, and the cement which is made from it, are in short supply in Bangladesh, therefore commanding a high price from building contractors
But the average income for these workers is around 150 taka (less than 3 Euro) a day
gmb-akash.com
Sono arsenic filter
Wikepedia 17 November 2009
The Sono arsenic filter was invented in 2006 by Abul Hussam, who is a chemistry professor at George Mason University (GMU) in Fairfax, Virginia.
It was developed to deal with the problem of arsenic contamination of groundwater.
The filter is now in use in Hussam's native Bangladesh.
Sono filter
at Alampara village
Near Bangladesh town of Kushtia
Farmers had been drinking fresh groundwater from wells, whereas previously they had had to use ponds and mudholes which were contaminated with bacteria and viruses.
However, the wells were also contaminated with naturally occurring high concentrations of poisonous arsenic, causing skin ailments and cancers. Awareness of the problem developed through the 1990s.
Allan Smith, an epidemiologist at the University of California at Berkeley, observed that the arsenic problem affects millions of people worldwide:
"You can't see it or taste or smell it.
"The idea that crystal-clear drinking water would end up causing lung disease in 20 or 30 years is a little weird.
"It's unbelievable to people.
Abul Hassam developed his filter after years of testing hundreds of prototypes.
The final version contains 20 pounds of shards of porous iron, which bonds chemically with arsenic.
It also includes charcoal, sand and bits of brick.
It filters nearly all of the arsenic from the well water.
Hassam was awarded the 2007 Grainger challenge Prize for Sustainability by the National Academy of Engineering.
Abul Hussam plans to use 70% of the $1 million engineering prize to distribute filters to needy communities.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sono_arsenic_filter
Child Labour. Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

A child worker collecting stone from the Bhollar Ghat on the banks of the Piyain River, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Ponds dug for fish rearing and storing water for agriculture in Bangladesh are thought to be a primary source of arsenic-contaminated drinking water which has caused widespread poisoning in the densely populated South Asian nation, according to a study released Sunday.

The study, published in the respected journal Nature Geoscience, shows the odorless and tasteless arsenic enters water supplies from natural deposits in the ground or from agricultural and industrial waste exposing some 25 million people in Bangladesh to the contamination.

Photo by gmb-akash.com
A child worker collecting stone from the Bhollar Ghat on the banks of the Piyain River
gmb-akash.com


Dissolved Arsenic in Bangladesh Drinking Water Is from Human Alteration of Landscape
ScienceDaily (Nov. 16, 2009)
Tower records
hydrologic
sensors
Bashailbhog
village
Researchers in MIT's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering believe they have pinpointed a pathway by which arsenic may be contaminating the drinking water in Bangladesh, a phenomenon that has puzzled scientists, world health agencies and the Bangladeshi government for nearly 30 years.
The research suggests that human alteration to the landscape, the construction of villages with ponds, and the adoption of irrigated agriculture are responsible for the current pattern of arsenic concentration underground.
The pervasive incidence of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and its link to drinking water were first identified in the scientific literature in the early 1980's, not long after the population began switching from surface water sources like rivers and ponds to groundwater from newly installed tube wells.
That national effort to decrease the incidence of bacterial illnesses caused by contaminated drinking water led almost immediately to severe and widespread arsenic poisoning, which manifests as sores on the skin and often leads to cancers of the skin, lung, liver, bladder and pancreas.
Since then, scientists have struggled to understand how the arsenic, which is naturally occurring in the underground sediment of the Ganges Delta, is being mobilized in the groundwater.
By 2002, a research team led by Charles Harvey, the Doherty Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at MIT, had determined that microbial metabolism of organic carbon was mobilizing the arsenic off the soils and sediments, and that crop irrigation was almost certainly playing a role in the process.
But the exact sources of the contaminated water have remained elusive, until now.
In a paper appearing online in Nature Geoscience November 15, 2009, Harvey, former graduate students Rebecca Neumann and Khandakar Ashfaque and co-authors explain that ponds excavated for the purpose of providing soil to build up villages for flood protection are the source of the organic carbon that presently mobilizes the arsenic in their 6-square-mile test site.
The carbon settles to the bottom of the ponds, then seeps underground where microbes metabolize it.
This creates the chemical conditions that cause arsenic to dissolve off the sediments and soils and into the groundwater.
The researchers also found that in their test area, which is flooded by annual monsoons, the rice fields irrigated with arsenic-laden water actually serve to filter out much of the arsenic from the water system.
Charles Harvey:
"Our research shows that water from the ponds carries degradable organic carbon into the shallow aquifer.
"Groundwater flow, drawn by irrigation pumping, transports that pond water to the depth where dissolved arsenic concentrations are greatest and where it is then pumped up into the irrigation and drinking wells.
"The other interesting thing we found is that the rice fields are a sink of arsenic — more arsenic goes in with the irrigation water than comes out in the groundwater."
Pulls water container through stagnant water
Scott Fendorf, a professor at Stanford University who studies arsenic content in soils and sediments along the Mekong River in Cambodia, says Harvey's previous research, published in 2002, "transformed the scientific community's outlook on the problem."
The current work, he adds, has two big ramifications:
"It shows that human modifications are impacting the arsenic content in the groundwater; and that while the rice cropping system appears to be buffering the arsenic, the ponds excavated to provide fill to build up the villages are having a negative impact on the release of arsenic."
Neumann, now a postdoctoral associate at Harvard University, took seven trips and spent nearly a year doing fieldwork in Bangladesh, studying the hydrologic behavior and chemical nature of rice fields and ponds, and performing tests on rice field and pond waters to determine if the organic carbon in these water bodies would stimulate arsenic mobilization.
She and Ashfaque developed an understanding of the surface and underground water flow patterns over a seven-year period, using natural tracers and a 3-D model to track rice field and pond water as it traveled into and through the subsurface.
Rebecca Neumann:
"When we compared the chemical signatures of the different water sources in our study area to the signatures of the aquifer water, we saw that water with high arsenic content originates from the human-built ponds, and water with lower arsenic content originates from the rice fields.
"It's likely that these same processes are occurring at other sites, and it suggests that the problem could be alleviated by digging deeper drinking water wells below the influence of the ponds or by locating shallow drinking wells under rice fields."
The researchers suggest that irrigation wells remain at the shallow level.
At 159 million people, Bangladesh is the seventh most populous country in the world, and it is growing quickly.
That means that new tube wells and ponds are being dug every day to accommodate the growing population.
Most of those wells are being drilled to less than 100 feet.
At that depth, they draw water directly from the contaminated shallow aquifer.
Land grabbers
pour sandy water
into fields
Holly Michael, a professor at the University of Delaware and former PhD student in the Harvey Lab, also studies the physics of groundwater flow and transport of the dissolved arsenic in Bangladesh, but in the deeper aquifer.
Holly Michael:
"Charlie's team is looking at the impacts at and near the surface, and my team is looking at the potential impacts of human activities at depth."
"My team found that if only the drinking-water wells are put into the deep, low-arsenic parts of the aquifer — at depths greater than 450 feet — then it is likely that the supply of low-arsenic water will continue for a very long time over much of the arsenic-affected area.
"Because so much more water is pumped for irrigation, it is important that irrigation wells are not installed deeper, as this would likely cause high-arsenic groundwater to flow downward toward the wells."
Harvey estimates that the prevalence of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh is approximately 2 million cases and that the incidence of death from arsenic-induced cancer will rise to approximately 3,000 cases per year if consumption of contaminated water continues.
He and a team of environmental scientists and physicians are making plans for a multi-year study that would provide deep wells for two villages in Bangladesh whose inhabitants suffer from arsenic poisoning.
There they would combine continual testing of the well water and hydrogeological modeling of the groundwater system with a study of how the clean water effects the villagers' health, placing special emphasis on the neurological development of children.
Charles Harvey:
"There are all sorts of studies to show how arsenic hurts people.
"We're trying to turn it around and show how removal of the arsenic will help them."
Other co-authors on the paper are graduate student Julie Shoemaker, who helped with fieldwork, sample analysis and data synthesis, and Bangladeshis A.B.M. Badruzzaman and M. Ashraf Ali of the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, who provided logistical support for the field site in the Munshiganj district of Bangladesh.
Adapted from materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report?   Use one of the following formats:
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Eleven years old Jainal
Has been working in factory for three years
Child Labour. Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

Jainal works in silver cooking pot factory.

He is 11 years old.

He has been working in this factory for three years.

His work starts at 9 a.m. and ends at 6 p.m.

For his work he gets 700 taka (15 Euro) for a month.

His parents are so poor that they can not afford to send him to school.

According to the factory owner, the parents do not care for their children; they send their kids to work for money and allegedly don't feel sorry for these small kids. 

Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2008. 

Photo by gmb-akash.com
Jainal works in silver cooking pot factory.
He is 11 years old.
He has been working in this factory for three years.
His work starts at 9 a.m. and ends at 6 p.m.
For his work he gets 700 taka (15 Euro) for a month.
His parents are so poor that they can not afford to send him to school.
According to the factory owner, the parents do not care for their children; they send their kids to work for money and allegedly don't feel sorry for these small kids.
gmb-akash.com

Golden opportunity missed to reform banking sector
In wake of
global
economic
crisis
world
missed
golden
opportunity
to help
neediest
people
by Julie Clothier/AFP
November 15, 2009
A better, more inclusive global banking system was possible, one that lends money to poorest of the poor who lack collateral to secure credit, Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus said
Dhaka: Bangladesh’s “banker to the poor” says the world has missed a golden opportunity to help the neediest people on the planet with a redesign of the financial system in the wake of the global economic crisis.
Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus, who along with his Grameen Bank won the peace prize in 2006, said leaving the world’s banking system in more or less the same state would not help the poor.
“This was the greatest opportunity we ever had to redesign the financial system globally and totally,” the 69-year-old told AFP.
“But now we’ve gone back to the same old ways and we’ll be ready for another crisis because we didn’t fix anything that is missing.”
Yunus, who created a billion-dollar micro-credit venture by lending $27 to a group of village women in 1976, has been a vocal critic of the global banking system which he says deliberately excludes people.
He said a better, more inclusive global banking system was possible, one that lends money to poorest of the poor who lack collateral to secure credit.
“First we need to redesign the financial system to make it an inclusive system. Every person in the world will have easy access to this system. Grameen has proved that it can be done,” he said. “Secondly we have to make sure (the banking sector) never has to come back for taxpayers’ bailouts for their mistakes.”
Many of world’s leading banks faced collapse in late 2008 due to ill-judged investments in loss-making financial instruments, leading governments in the US and Europe to pump billions into the sector.
Many of the same banks have since reported huge profits despite the government bailouts and critics are now wondering what has changed in the aftermath of the worst financial crisis since the 1930s.
Copyright © 2009 HT Media All Rights Reserved
Child Labour. Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

A child works in a textile factory in Dhaka.

It is common in Bangladesh for children of poor parents to work in various hazardous and labor-intensive workplaces to support their families.

The average child laborer earns between 400 to 700 taka per month, while an adult worker can earn up to 5,000 taka per month.

Dhaka, Bangladesh. 

Photo by gmb-akash.com
A child works in a textile factory in Dhaka.
It is common in Bangladesh for children of poor parents to work in various hazardous and labor-intensive workplaces to support their families.
The average child laborer earns between 400 to 700 taka per month, while an adult worker can earn up to 5,000 taka per month.
gmb-akash.com

Muhammad Yunus: Changing the System, One Social Business at a Time
September 24, 2009
Brevy Cannon UVA Today excerpts
Ideas can start small and go on to change the world.
Boy helps elderly person
Sadarghat, Dhaka
Starting with a $27 loan to 42 Bangladeshi villagers in 1976, Yunus founded a bank that now makes more than $1 billion a year in 'microloans' to 8 million borrowers.
Further, Yunus' concept of collateral-free microloans has become a global movement that has dispersed more than $20 billion to nearly 100 million households in more than 50 countries, said Gowher Rizvi of the US University of Virginia as he introduced his longtime friend Yunus.
The magnitude of microfinance's impact is staggering, Rizvi said.
Millions of the poorest people in the world, many of whom earn less than $1 a day, have used microloans to start household ventures as simple as buying one chicken and selling the eggs.
Microloans also pay for schooling that allows children to become engineers, doctors and other professionals, a huge leap in one generation from the circumstances of their parents.
"Availability of affordable and reliable credit offers the best hope of breaking the vicious circle of economic, social and demographic structure that ultimately cause poverty," said Rizvi in his introduction of "one of the most transformative human beings on our earth."
Yunus recounted the birth and epic growth of the simple concept of microloans.
Shortly after Bangladesh became an independent country in 1971, Yunus left his job as a professor of economics in the United States to help rebuild his homeland.
When a famine struck, Yunus witnessed people dying and felt "disgusted and tortured inside," he recounted.
Alamin
Child Labour. Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

Alamin aged 8, taking lunch in a dump yard where he works.  

Dhaka, Bangladesh. 

Photo by gmb-akash.com
Alamin aged 8 taking lunch in a dumping yard where he works.
gmb-akash.com

Changing the System, One Social Business at a Time
Muhammad Yunus
September 24, 2009
Brevy Cannon UVA Today excerpts
When Muhammad Yunus visited struggling villages to help in whatever small ways he could, he soon observed how many Bangladeshis were suffering at the hands of loan sharks.
His initial $27 loan allowed the 42 Bangladeshi villagers to pay off their loan sharks.
After observing the huge positive impact of his first few small-dollar loans, he asked banks to help him multiply these collateral-free loans.
Bankers' conventional wisdom held that the poor were not creditworthy, and should not be given loans.
Yunus personally signed as a guarantor of every tiny loan to villagers, and the loans were repaid successfully.
Still, the banks declined to adopt and promote this new type of loan, so Yunus founded Grameen Bank in 1976, to make his own microloans.
Grameen Bank has grown to become one of the largest in the world, lending more than $1 billion a year to 8 million borrowers, with a 97 percent payback rate.
In the process, Yunus upended many of the tenets of modern banking.
Whereas typical banks tend to lend to the rich, mostly men, concentrated in urban centers, drawing on the deposits of wealthy investors, Grameen loans to the poor, mostly women, often in rural areas, with 60 percent of their deposits coming from borrowers (who must open a Grameen account as part of getting a loan.)
Instead of making customers travel to a bank branch to do business, Grameen's 28,000 staff come to the doorsteps of its customers.
All humans have an entrepreneurial spirit, Yunus noted, but that spirit is stifled when people are born into a society that doesn't let every individual have an opportunity to explore his or her potential.
Grameen Bank.

Founded 1983, Dhaka, Bangladesh

When Muhammad Yunus visited struggling villages to help in whatever small ways he could, he soon observed how many Bangladeshis were suffering at the hands of loan sharks.

His initial $27 loan allowed the 42 Bangladeshi villagers to pay off their loan sharks. 

After observing the huge positive impact of his first few small-dollar loans, he asked banks to help him multiply these collateral-free loans.

Bankers' conventional wisdom held that the poor were not creditworthy, and should not be given loans.

Yunus personally signed as a guarantor of every tiny loan to villagers, and the loans were repaid successfully.

Still, the banks declined to adopt and promote this new type of loan, so Yunus founded Grameen Bank in 1976, to make his own microloans.  

Grameen Bank has grown to become one of the largest in the world, lending more than $1 billion a year to 8 million borrowers, with a 97 percent payback rate.

In the process, Yunus upended many of the tenets of modern banking.

Whereas typical banks tend to lend to the rich, mostly men, concentrated in urban centers, drawing on the deposits of wealthy investors, Grameen loans to the poor, mostly women, often in rural areas, with 60 percent of their deposits coming from borrowers (who must open a Grameen account as part of getting a loan.)

Instead of making customers travel to a bank branch to do business, Grameen's 28,000 staff come to the doorsteps of its customers.

All humans have an entrepreneurial spirit, Yunus noted, but that spirit is stifled when people are born into a society that doesn't let every individual have an opportunity to explore his or her potential.
Grameen Bank
Founded 1983, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Changing the System, One Social Business at a Time
September 24, 2009
Brevy Cannon UVA Today excerpts
Writes life history on pavement
"Poverty is not created by poor people.   Poverty is created by the system," Muhammad Yunus said.
To demonstrate this claim, Yunus created a special program of loans to beggars, who were encouraged to carry along something to sell, like candy, while begging.
Those they approached had a choice to buy something, donate or do both.
Today more than 112,000 beggars have received these loans, and more than 16,000 of them are no longer begging.
The rest are only part-time beggars, exercising their entrepreneurial spirit as they determine which houses are best for begging and which are best for selling, he said to a laugh.
"So even a beggar, given an opportunity, can turn himself or herself into something else: a self-respecting businessperson."
Detractors have been skeptical that the microloans model could work in wealthy developed nations like the United States, Yunus said.
So Grameen has opened a branch in Queens, New York; its roughly 1,000 borrowers have a repayment rate of 99.3 percent.
But expanding microloan offerings in the U.S. and many other countries is hobbled by old banking laws that technically prohibit this type of small-dollar lending and community banking.
Mainstream banks continue to resist the microloans model, Yunus said.
The recent financial crisis is an opportunity to remake the international banking system, so that it will serve the two-thirds of the world's population who have traditionally been denied access to the formal banking system.
Returning to the old banking system would be a huge missed opportunity, Yunus said, but there is still time to reform the system.
Yunus has also pioneered the concept of social entrepreneurship, or social business, a not-for-profit business focused on doing a social good, such as ending the serious malnutrition suffered by 50 percent of Bangladeshi children.
To do so, Grameen Bank partnered with Dannon to produce low-cost yogurt fortified with a special blend of nutrients and vitamins lacking in the diets of the malnourished.
When a child consumes two cups of the yogurt a week for eight to nine months, he or she gains the missing micronutrients required for healthy development, Yunus said.
The "profits" from this program are reinvested to reach more and more children each year.
Child Labour. Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

A child working in an aluminum cooking pot factory in Dhaka.

More than 17 percent of all children aged 5–15 are engaged in economic activities. 

Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2006. 

Photo by gmb-akash.com
A child working in an aluminum cooking pot factory in Dhaka
More than 17 percent of all children aged 5–15 are engaged in economic activities
gmb-akash.com
Muhammad Yunus: Changing the System, One Social Business at a Time
September 24, 2009
Brevy Cannon UVA Today excerpts
Similar Grameen joint-venture social businesses are making low-cost mosquito nets impregnated with insecticide to prevent the spread of mosquito-borne illnesses like malaria, and shoes that will sell for $1 a pair, to be unveiled at the July 2010 World Cup soccer finals.
Social business enables people to use their creativity to solve problems and express their selfless side, Yunus said.
Just like his own experience creating micro-lending, the solutions can start small, and then be replicated around the world.
"We can change the world," Yunus said, to another standing ovation.
        MuhammadYunus.org
Roubel
Child Labour. Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

10-year-old Roubel works at a factory making ornamental grilles for windows.

He is already a skilled worker after working as an apprentice without pay for two years.

He now earns 500 taka, or around 12 Euro, a month.

Dhaka, Bangladesh. 

Photo by gmb-akash.com
10-year-old Roubel works at a factory making ornamental grilles for windows
He is already a skilled worker after working as an apprentice without pay for two years
He now earns 500 taka, or around 12 Euro, a month
gmb-akash.com

Muhammad Yunus: Capitalism is Half-Baked
By Michael Fitzgerald
January 9th, 2008 excerpts
In “Creating a World Without Poverty,” Muhammad Yunus has written a dangerous book.
Not so much for his goal – that’s merely outlandish, since most people expect the poor will always be.
Besides, Yunus knows how to make audacious ideas real — he created Grameen Bank to bring financial services to the poor, and proved that microfinance can be profitable and powerful.
What’s dangerous are his questions.
Like, if capitalism is so effective, why must 60 percent of the world’s population squeak by on six percent of its income?
Why is it that China’s remarkable economic growth is ruining its environment?
Why is poverty on the rise in the United States, even as its overall wealth skyrockets?
These questions skewer conventional economic wisdom that our current model of capitalism is the be-all and end-all for global economics.
Yunus dares to say that market capitalism is both underdeveloped and, in its current form, bad for most of us.
He echoes J.A. Hobson, the early 20th century critic of capitalism whose 1902 book Imperialism skewered British capitalists, accusing them of being economic parasites.
(He also echoes Adam Smith himself, who wrote in the Wealth of Nations about inequities in the system that reduced competition and the flow of labor).
Yunus is not so vituperative as Hobson, but he does call out business leaders, saying bluntly that “capitalism is a half-developed structure” and that modern economics is guilty of
We’ve created a one-dimensional human
...assuming that people are one-dimensional beings concerned only with the pursuit of maximum profit...
We’ve created a one-dimensional human being to play the role of business leader, the so-called entrepreneur.
We’ve insulated him from the rest of life, the religious, emotional, political and social.
He is dedicated to one mission only – maximize profit.
He is supported by other one-dimensional human beings who give him their investment money to achieve that mission.
To quote Oscar Wilde, they know the price of everything and the value of nothing.
Holds back man protesting against police killing relative
Gament workers seeking backpay attacked
Yunus believes that governments, nonprofit organizations, international organizations like the World Bank and attempts at corporate social responsibility all have failed to address the problems of modern free-market capitalism.
What he posits is a new form of business, which he calls the social business.
He describes this business as similar in every way to a normal profit-oriented business, except that it does not disburse its profits to investors.
It also exists to address a social issue (he suggests examples such as a business that might make nutritious food at low prices for poor children, that would not require expensive packaging and would only have to make profits enough to stay in business).
There will obviously be limits to the investment pool available to social businesses.
But examples of them already exist – Grameen Bank and its affiliates, to name the obvious, but there are already perhaps scores of others.
Yunus expects to see social businesses find wide sources of funding and management:
From existing businesses motivated to open new markets or to engage in socially responsible investing — his book opens with the meeting he had with the leadership of France’s Group Danone that led to the creation of such a business.
From foundations looking to see donations turn into self-sustaining streams of funds.
From successful entrepreneurs (think Jeff Skoll and Pierre Omidyar of EBay).
From current development sources like the World Bank.
From governments themselves.
From the wealthy, looking for alternative forms of philanthropy.
From recent college graduates looking to change the world.
Funding and drawing managment talent will not be the only obstacles facing social businesses.
In the second part of his book, Yunus discusses The Grameen Experiment.
Child Labour. Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

A child rests on sand at Bhollar Ghat on the banks of the Piyain River.

17.5 percent of children in the aged 5–15 are engaged in economic activities.

Many of these children are engaged in various hazardous occupations in manufacturing factories. 

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Photo by gmb-akash.com
A child rests on sand at Bhollar Ghat on the banks of the Piyain River
gmb-akash.com

Muhammad Yunus: Capitalism is Half-Baked
By Michael Fitzgerald
January 12th and 21st, 2008 excerpts
Grameen Bank is an improbable business worth study.
In the second section of Creating a World Without Poverty, Muhammad Yunus details the ongoing evolution of what he calls “The Grameen Experiment.”
Yunus was an economist, not a banker, and he needed to invent his bank for the poor, ignoring naysayers and regulatory obstacles at almost every step.
It’s a classic example of how someone who does not realize that what he intends to do is impossible is thus able to achieve it.
Economists may find themselves frowning in this section of the book.
Yunus tweaks his former colleagues for their blind spots and their refusal to look at people except in abstract terms like “labor.”
His is another voice in favor of ‘experimental’ economics, the part of the field that tries to look at human behavior as it is, rather than as economists say it should be.
That kind of anthropological economics resulted in many useful business practices at Grameen, and Yunus is generous in discussing what has worked and what has needed revising.
For instance, it found that the wisdom of crowds works among the very poor: it has learned to lend to people in groups of five, and they all have to vouch for the person receiving the loan.
It’s also learned that lending to women has a bigger potential for getting families out of poverty than lending to men.
Grameen is also of interest because it has spawned 25 different kinds of social businesses.
Yunus details some of them in this section and then walks us through the newest, Grameen Danone, a joint venture between Grameen and France’s Danone Group (in the U.S. we know it best for Dannon yogurt).
This venture is a ground-breaking social business that now sells very inexpensive yogurt to help feed Bangladeshi children.
In his two chapters on the creation of what he hopes will be a trendsetting operation, some of what Yunus looks at focuses on how a very large corporation was able to shift its own mindset about things like manufacturing, distribution and packaging in ways that may help its regular business.
Grameen’s creativity and ability to change minds and remake both markets and government regulation is strikingly evident in this section.
So is its ability to listen to its customers and adapt to them, rather than forcing them to adapt to it.
Yunus recaps some of the hoops that had to be jumped through before Grameen Danone could start making high-nutrition, low-cost yogurt in Bangladesh.
Capital markets and regulators aren’t set up to finance social businesses or to tax them (or exempt them from taxes, as may be the case), and Group Danone had to do yeoman’s work with shareholders and regulators, including creating a social mutual fund that did not promise to maximize returns first and foremost.
Yunus' goal is to expand market capitalism by making the unconventional conventional, working in an idea for a Social Dow Jones Index, Social MBAs and other ideas for increasing the visibility – and viability — of such businesses.
He also has high expectations for turning information technology as an engine for eliminating poverty. His experiences in Bangladesh suggest that the digital divide is not inevitable, and where it exists it does not need to be permanent.
He cites the One Laptop Per Child and Intel Classmate PC projects as examples, and throws out a few other ideas that he hopes someone will pursue.
Yunus’ vision will either inspire or irritate, because it is an outsized vision – a world with no poverty, a capitalism that doesn’t weigh only profits – that stands outside today’s reality.
It will make many business people uncomfortable, and many others disdainful.
By the end of the book, when he discusses the consumer society and whether it can and should be sustained, and says not in its current form, he will be preaching to a choir, and also to converts.
They will all nod their heads in agreement when he writes
“Doing the right thing is no longer merely a matter of making ourselves feel good.
“It’s a matter of survival, for ourselves and for generations to come.”
Child Labour. Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

The owner of a textile factory beating a child laborer.

The boy works for ten hours a day and earns about 1 USD.

17.5 percent of children in the aged 5–15 are engaged in economic activities.

Many of these children are engaged in various hazardous occupations in manufacturing factories. 

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Photo by gmb-akash.com
The owner of a textile factory beating a child laborer.
The boy works for ten hours a day and earns about 1 USD.
gmb-akash.com
6.3 million children under 14 working in Bangladesh
When I asked permission of G.M.B.Akash to use his photographs, his email replied:
"If it is for good then you can use them."
I then sent a further email asking for some further description of his images.
His response was to send me the following text:
Description of project, *Title:   Born to work*
For the last three years I have been working on child labour in Bangladesh.
Child labour is forbidden in Bangladesh since 1992.
In December 2005 I visited a garment factory in Narayanganj, which is the center of the garment industry in Bangladesh.
I took a picture of the owner beating a 12-year-old boy because he had been too slow sewing t-shirts.
According to the UN Children’s Fund report, more than 6.3 million children under 14 are working in Bangladesh.
Many of them work under very bad conditions; some of them even risk their life.
Factory owners pay them about 400 to 700 taka (10 USD) a month while an adult worker earns up to 5,000 taka per month.
Everybody knows this, and for a long time nobody took care.
With my work I want to confront the people with the problem of child labour and motivate the people who begin to think about it — in Bangladesh where children are employed and in the rich countries of the Western world where products are sold that have been produced by children.
Some influential people in my country don’t want me to reinforce the bad image of Bangladesh.
But this is not my intention.
My intention is to start an improvement.
Showing the working conditions of the children doesn’t only mean to create shock-reactions — it could be a beginning of a change in thinking for parents who force their children to work for reasons of poverty as well as the factory owners and also the western consumers.
Once I took a picture of a seven-year-old boy working in a bulb factory.
His job was to check the bulbs by hanging them into an electric wire — without any protection.
He had to do this very fast and any small mistake would have killed him.
I only took two pictures before the manager threw me out of the factory.
I didn’t even have the time to ask the boy’s name. Sometimes I just climb over the fence to get into a factory to take pictures; sometimes — like in this case — I go there with a friend who pretends to want to talk to the boss while I run into the working place.
My intention is not only to show the children at work as victims of bad bosses exploiting them but I want to show the complexity of the situation:
The parents who send their little boy to work in a factory because they are poor.
The child that has to work to earn a living for the family.
The boss of the factory who is being pushed by big garment company to produce for less money.
And the Western consumers as clients who buy cheap clothes.
I think it is impossible to abolish child labour completely in Bangladesh in a very short time but I am sure it is possible to improve the working conditions of the children and to bring more children from factory work into the schools.
Regards
Akash
Click here for website of master photographer GMB Akash
gmb-akash.com
As this page and the pages below show, Bangladesh is not the only country exploiting children workers — goods greedily lapped up by the US, Canada, and Europe people, and most other markets of the world.
Child labor for the use of the West, for countries world-wide, for the Bangladesh consumer, cheap clothing and cheap commodities of all kinds.
Kewe
Child Labour. Child Labour. Child labor — 6.4 million under 14 child workers Bangladesh — Children paid fifth of adult wage for same work.

Hands of 8-year-old Munna while working in a rickshaw parts making factory.

He works 10 hours a day and gets 8 USD for a month. 

17.5 percent of children in the aged 5–15 are engaged in economic activities.

Many of these children are engaged in various hazardous occupations in manufacturing factories. 

Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2007.

Photo by gmb-akash.com
Hands of 8-year-old Munna while working in a rickshaw parts making factory.
He works 10 hours a day and gets 12 Euro for a month.
gmb-akash.com
       A day in the life of Bangladesh — includes photos      
Images from Zoriah — A photojournalist and War photographer can be found here
zoriah.net
Vaccine pollution
This may sound familiar — the vaccine was promoted by national health organizations, the main stream news, schools, workplaces and on television to encourage everyone to get the jab.
More than 800 children across Europe have been diagnosed with this incurable neurological disorder and the evidence is overwhelming in the implication of the vaccine.
Florida Legislature Refuses to Limit Mercury in Vaccines.
US Supreme Court Immunizes Vaccine Makers
     Sweden: A Cautionary Tale About Vaccines       
     They play autism roulette with your child     
      These are what flu and 'swine' vaccines may contain     
GMO bioweapons gene modification and food
Roundup weedkiller found in 75% of Air and Rain Samples — environment saturated with GM agrichemical farming grid
By using genetic methods that are standard procedures in thousands of labs worldwide bioweapons can be made more virulent easier to handle and harder to fight.
Using genetic engineering techniques antibodies from women with infertility have been inserted into genes of ordinary corn seeds used to produce corn plants
What they do not tell the public is that they are using HEK 293 — human embryonic kidney cells taken from an electively aborted baby to produce those receptors.
In 'defense' war programs researchers in the USA UK Russia and Germany have genetically engineered biological weapons agents building new deadly strains
       Antibodies from women with infertility used in creation of GMO food      
       Aborted fetal cells used in research of flavor enhancers      
     Scientists putting genes from human beings into food crops in dramatic extension of genetic modification.      
     Body Burden — cumulative synergistic effects      
Eric Harris age 17 — first on Zoloft then Luvox — and Dylan Klebold aged 18 —Colombine school shooting in Littleton, Colorado — killed 12 students and 1 teacher, and wounded 23 others, before killing themselves.
Jeff Weise, age 16, had been prescribed 60 mg/day of Prozac — three times the average starting dose for adults! — when he shot his grandfather, his grandfather’s girlfriend and many fellow students at Red Lake, Minnesota.   He then shot himself — 10 dead, 12 wounded.
Cory Baadsgaard, age 16, Wahluke, Washington state High School, was on Paxil — which caused him to have hallucinations — when he took a rifle to his high school and held 23 classmates hostage.   He has no memory of the event.
     The drugging of our children      
     32% of male convicts and 41% of female convicts previously used ADHD medication as children     
       People previously having ADHD drugs likely to commit burglary or theft     
 
 
       Afghanistan — Western Terror States: Canada, US, UK, France, Germany, Italy       
       Photos of Afghanistan people being killed and injured by NATO     
 
 
 
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