Date:24/11/2006 URL: http://www.thehindu.com/2006/11/24/stories/2006112402491500.htm
Human rights cannot "be imposed with cluster bombs": Shirin Ebadi
When it comes to humanity the borders are still intact, says Nobel laureate

  • Criticises U.S.-sponsored "war on terrorism"
  • Opposes forced wearing of the hejab
    — Photo: SUSHANTA PATRONOBISHNobel Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi with West Bengal Governor Gopalkrishna Gandhi in Kolkata.

The winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003 spoke in Kolkata, India November 23, 2006

Today fighting terrorism has become a pretext to violate human rights. And states use national security to increase their power and control of the people. None of this will reduce terrorism.

Under that pretext of fighting terrorism America invaded Iraq and Afghanistan.

There is no question that Saddam [ Hussein ] was a dictator but my question is, was Saddam the only dictator in the world?

Unfortunately we have many.

The difference was that in Iraq oil can be found and in many other places it cannot.

Controlling the lives of citizens, listening in to their phone conversations, interfering with the private lives of people and limiting social and individual freedoms is not the answer.

Human rights cannot be imposed with cluster bombs.

What needs to be globalised is human rights.
    A CRUSADER: Nobel Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi with West Bengal Governor Gopalkrishna Gandhi in Kolkata on Thursday.
    KOLKATA: For Nobel laureate Shirin Ebadi "human rights is a package....a way of seeing the world, a culture, which cannot "be imposed with cluster bombs" and brought to countries "in tanks".
    "The world is turning into a unified village.   We can see that in finance borders are eliminated.   But when it comes to humanity the borders are still intact."
    "And the problem is here.   What needs to be globalised is human rights", the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003, said in conversation with a select media group here on Thursday.
    Known for her crusade on human rights, Ms. Ebadi, who practises law in her country Iran where she "magically" escaped two assassination attempts, is particularly critical of the U.S.-sponsored "war on terrorism" and its effect on human rights.
    Violence always brings violence
    "Violence always brings violence."
    "Have we found the roots of terrorism?" she asks.
    "Unfortunately today fighting terrorism has become a pretext to violate human rights."
    "And states use national security to increase their power and control of the people."
    "None of this will reduce terrorism," Ms. Ebadi who is on a brief visit to the city observed.
    Has it been reduced?
    "Under that pretext of fighting terrorism America invaded Iraq and Afghanistan.   Has it been reduced?"
    "Unfortunately it is only augmenting and increasing by the day.   This can only mean that they have forgotten addressing the roots [of terrorism] and focusing on the end results... ." she said.
    "We need to fight terrorism at its roots.   Humanity is now on a boat.   Everyone's fate is inter-related."
    Not the answer
    "Controlling the lives of citizens, listening in to their phone conversations, interfering with the private lives of people and limiting social and individual freedoms is not the answer.
    Human rights are inextricably linked with the question of democracy.
    "Today the U.S. claims it is in Iraq because it wants to put democracy on the pole.   There is no question that Saddam [Hussein] was a dictator but my question is, was Saddam the only dictator in the world? Unfortunately we have many."
    Iraq oil can be found
    "The difference was that in Iraq oil can be found and in many other places it cannot."
    She is both "against the forced wearing of the hejab as well against forcing women not to wear it... .women's rights, according to a famous saying, are human rights."
    "All the limitations have always been imposed on women, men are free to wear whatever they want to — whether in Islamic countries or western countries, it always depends on who benefits from such impositions."
    As for her views on the Shariat, "we need an interpretation of Islam which complies with human rights."
    Has the Nobel Prize changed her life?
    "An award does not change one's personality.   It has only increased my work.   I still go to court, I still cook... Of course many doors have opened in the international arena and I am able to bring my voice to a lot many people" Ms. Ebadi, who has almost completed her next book on "fighting poverty."
    "But I always wish that a day would be made up of 48 hours.   The reason is, I have many thoughts that I can't find time to put down on paper."
    To her a writer "does not write anything, it is the pen which does the writing."   "I must abide by the pen and see where it takes me," she says.   Her last book titled `Iran Awakening; A Memoir of Revolution and Hope' has been translated into 18 languages.
    © Copyright 2000 - 2006 The Hindu
  • Shirin Ebadi

    The Nobel Lecture was delivered by ‘The Nobel Peace Prize Laureate for 2003,’ Shirin Ebadi — The lecture was in the Farsi language
    Oslo, December 10, 2003
    (Translation omits formality of list of distinguised guests)

    The Nobel Peace Prize this year is awarded to a woman, a woman from Iran, a country where the majority practice the muslim faith in the Middle East.

    This award given to me will inspire the masses of women, not only in Iran but also throughout the larger, surrounding geographical area — women who strive to realize their rights, rights that have been taken away from them as time has past.

    Patriarchal cultures

    My being selected as a Peace Prize winner will allow women in Iran, and those much further from the borders of my country, a greater freedom to believe in themselves. Women make up half of the population of every country.   By disregarding women and baring them from active participation in political, social, economic and cultural life is de facto depriving the entire population of society of half of its capability.   Patriarchal cultures that encourage discrimination against women, cultural traits that today are more observable in the Islamic countries, cannot continue forever.  

    For all those who love freedom, who seek peace and humanitarian goals, whether they are women or men, the honour of this prize makes a strong, immediate impression and will bring blessings both on the endeavours of the people of Iran and on the greater area.  

    Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Today is the 55th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.   This is a declaration that starts with a recognition of the inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights that all members of the human family should have.

    It promises a world in which human beings may enjoy freedoms of expression and opinions, and a world where human beings shall be safeguarded and protected against fear and poverty.   The Universal Declaration of Human Rights acts as the embodiment and surety of freedom, justice and peace.

    Unfortunately, the report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), this year, as in the previous years, is far from the ideals of the authors of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.   1.2 billion people today live in poverty.   In 2002 almost 1.2 billion human beings earned less than one dollar a day.

    In 2002 more than 50 countries were either engaged in war or were suffering from large natural disasters.   AIDS, has to date claimed the lives of 22 million individuals, a loss of life which has created 13 million orphan children.  

    States using violence

    We have also seen at the same time certain states using the violence of the activities of September 11, 2001 as an excuse to violate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and its laws and principals.   The professed purpose being a war on international terrorism.

    The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 57/219, of 18 December 2002, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1456, of 20 January 2003, and the United Nations Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2003/68, of 25 April 2003, explicitly state that all nations must ensure that any measures taken to combat terrorist activity comply with all obligations under international law, in particular international human rights and humanitarian law.  

    Instead we see special bodies and extraordinary courts; we see regulations restricting human rights and basic freedoms.   These regulations are both justified and given legitimacy under the banner of the war on terrorism.

    These special bodies and extraordinary courts make all seen adjudication, consistent with law and lawful rules and logic, difficult and at times impossible.   All of this is given legitimacy in the name of a war on terrorism.  

    Human rights laws violated in Western democracies

    When international human rights laws are violated in the instances of recognized opponents — opponents who believe that a culture can only be truly elevated by their own standards and not by any common criteria — there is apprehension by human rights' advocates.

    But this apprehension increases when international human rights laws are seen to be violated in Western democracies, in countries that were themselves among the initial codifiers of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    For months, hundreds of individuals arrested in the course of military conflicts — imprisoned in Guantanamo — have been held without the benefit of rights stipulated under the international Geneva conventions, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    Why are certain decisions and resolutions of the UN Security Council considered binding, while others not?

    For the past number of years, there has been a question which millions of citizens in the international civil society have been asking themselves.   This question they continue to ask, particularly in recent months.   Why are certain decisions and resolutions of the UN Security Council considered binding, while other equal resolutions of the council considered to have no such binding force?

    Why have dozens of UN resolutions pertaining to the occupation of the Palestinian territories by the state of Israel — resolutions past over the past 35 years — not been implemented, or have not been implemented correctly?

    Concerning the state and people of Iraq however, we have seen — in the past 12 years — that only one recommendation of the Security Council brought immediate action, action that included sustained economic sanctions.

    We have seen in this past year that even when the UN Security Council were opposed to the measure brought before it, even despite this, that the country has been subjected to military assault and military occupation.

    I am Iranian.   I am a descendent of Cyrus The Great.   The very emperor who proclaimed at the pinnacle of his power 2500 years ago that he would not reign over the people if they did not wish it.   He made the promise not to force any person to change either his religion or faith.   He guaranteed freedom for all.

    The grant from the sovereign, announced officially and publicly by Cyrus the Great, is one of the most important documents that should be studied in the history of human rights.  

    Advent of Islam

    I am a Muslim.   In the teaching of the Holy Qur'an, the Prophet of Islam has been illustrated as saying: “You shall believe in your faith as I believe in my religion.”

    The Holy Qur'an considers the mission of all prophets as a mission to ask all people to uphold justice.

    The advent of Islam into the culture of Iran has been marked by progress in the arts and sciences, and in the complex political and social institutions.

    It has seen great Iranian literature, in particular our literature from Hafez, from the beloved Maulana Jalalu’ddin Rumi, our literature from Fariduddin Attar, from Saadi Shirazi, Sanaei, Nasir Khusraw and Nizami Ganjawi.

    These are all emissaries of our humanitarian culture.   Their message embodies itself in the poem by Saadi:
    The sons of Adam act as limbs to each other, having been created from one center.  
    When the misfortune of an era harms one such limb, the others cannot continue to rest.
    For more than a hundred years, the Iranian people have been following, each after another, the opposing forces of tradition and modernity.

    Caravan of civilization

    Seeking the values of former times, some are trying to administer the problems they face today by the values used by ancient forefathers.

    But, many others, while still respecting historical and cultural beginnings, and the religion and faith, seek to be a part of a moving caravan of civilization, to be a part of modern development and progress.

    Consistent with this the Iranian people, particularly in the recent years, have sought to participate in government.   In this participation they consider devotion to the public welfare to be the right of all.   They also wish to be masters of their own destiny.  

    People aware of their rights cannot easily be beaten down

    Such conflicting forces can be observed in many Muslim states, not merely in Iran.   There are Muslims who say Islamic teachings, and the present traditional structure of Islamic societies, are not compatible with democracy.   By this they excuse despotic governments.

    The reality is that a people who are aware of their rights cannot easily be beaten down by the use of patriarchal and paternalistic custom.

    Note that Islam is a religion where the first expression of thought to the Prophet began with the word “Relate.”

    The Holy Book swears by the pen and what is written upon its pages.   Such an expression is not in conflict with our diverse understandings, our varied components of awareness, of knowledge, of wisdom, and our wish for the freedom to have an opinion and a statement.  

    Patriarchal and male-dominated accepted behavior

    Islam does not preach discrimination against women.   All too often in the arena of civil law, in the province of social, political and cultural justice, it is the patriarchal and male-dominated accepted behavior patterns that achieves success in Islamic states.

    Such patriarchal and male-dominated accepted behavior patterns cannot tolerate attitudes of freedom and democracy.

    It cannot accept the concept of equal rights for men and women, nor the ridding of women from male authority (fathers, husbands, brothers, etc), for to do so threatens the historical and traditional position held by the rulers and guardians of this patriarchal culture.  

    We need to say to these that if you believe in the precedence and higher value of parliamentary democracy above other political systems, then you cannot think only of your own security and comfort, selfishly and despicably.

    If you consider international human rights laws, including a nations' right to decide their own course of action, to be universal, then you can no longer allow the stagnation of policies that prevail in this region.  

    A journey we are taking

    The enjoyment of human rights and democracy in this region is a journey we are taking, and, while maintaining political independence and territorial integrity of each respective country, we in this region must seek, with top priority given by the United Nations with respect to future occurrence that involve international relations, to search for new ideas to enable us to continue to proceede upon this journey.

    I am inspired by winning the Nobel Peace Prize of 2003, as the first Iranian, and as the first woman from a Muslim country.

    Millions of Iranians and peoples of the nations of Islamic states are encouraged and urged forward toward the realization of human rights and the establishment of democracy in their respective countries by the decision of the Nobel Peace Committee.

    They see this as the support and backing and solidarity of international civil society.  This prize belongs to the people of Iran.   It belongs to the people of the Islamic states, and to the people of the whole area as a beacon for establishing human rights and democracy.  

    Human rights, surety for freedom

    Human rights acts as the surety for freedom, for justice and for peace.   If human rights fail, if that which is stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in its preamble, fails to be manifested in codified laws, or placed into a condition of power by states, then human beings are left with no choice but to stage a rebellion, to make warfare against tyranny and oppression.  

    If the 21st century wishes to free itself from the cycle of violence, from acts of terror and war, if the world wishes to avoid a repetition of the experience of the 20th century — a most destructive, catastrophic-ridden century of humankind — then there is no other way but human rights.

    A person who has been shorn of all dignity, a human who has been deprived of their human rights, a human who is being gripped by starvation, being beaten by famine, by war and by illness, a humiliated man, woman or child, a plundered human, is not in any position or state to recover the rights he or she has lost.  

    Know there is no other way for us as a world but to take the path of understanding, and to ensure that every human right for all humankind is observed, irrespective of gender, race, religion, nationality and social status.  

    I wait with anticipation.







































        Thursday 11 December 2003
    Prime Minister praises Ebadi's speech

    Norwegian Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik Thursday hailed the controversial Nobel Lecture delivered by Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi.   In it, she criticized the US for abusing human rights in its war on terrorism.
    Ebadi was the guest of honor in the prime minister's office Thursday morning.   Like all other guests, she was treated to the view from his 16th floor office overlooking Oslo.

    Bondevik praised Ebadi's speech on Wednesday before starting a private meeting with her, at which human rights was the main topic.   The two also were expected to discuss Iran's upcoming elections in February.

    Ebadi was escorted to the meeting by the director of Norway's Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad.   Also attending were Bondevik's two top advisers, Odd Jostein Saeter and Gunnar Husan, along with Norway's ambassador to Iran, Ole Kristian Holthe.

    Ebadi was smiling and made it clear she enjoyed being in Norway.   "I would like to congratulate you for being blessed with social equality, freedom of speech and freedom of the press," she told Bondevik.   At Wednesday night's Nobel Banquet she called her award and reception in Norway "an honor... I will remember the rest of my life."

    Bondevik was due to travel to Geneva later in the day to meet the president of Iran, Mohamad Khatami, in connection with an arrangement sponsored by an international church group.

    Ebadi faced another busy day in Oslo after being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on Wednesday.   Her schedule included a meeting with Foreign Minister Jan Petersen, lunch at the Iranian embassy in Oslo, a performance by Oslo school children and the annual Nobel Concert in Oslo Spektrum.



    Aftenposten English Web Desk
    Nina Berglund /NTB


    © Aftenposten Multimedia.






















        Thursday 11 December 2003
    Shirin Ebadi - biography

    The Iranian lawyer and human rights activist Shirin Ebadi was born in 1947.
    Nobel Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi and her daughter wave to well-wishers from her hotel balcony in Oslo Wednesday evening.
    PHOTO: SCANPIX


    She received a law degree from the University of Tehran.   In the years 1975-79 she served as president of the city court of Tehran, one the first female judges in Iran.   After the revolution in 1979 she was forced to resign.   She now works as a lawyer and also teaches at the University of Tehran.

    Both in her research and as an activist, she is known for promoting peaceful, democratic solutions to serious problems in society.   She takes an active part in the public debate and is well-known and admired by the general public in her country for her defence in court of victims of the conservative faction's attack on freedom of speech and political freedom.

    Ebadi represents Reformed Islam, and argues for a new interpretation of Islamic law which is in harmony with vital human rights such as democracy, equality before the law, religious freedom and freedom of speech.   As for religious freedom, it should be noted that Ebadi also includes the rights of members of the bahai community, which has had problems in Iran ever since its foundation.

    Ebadi is an activist for refugee rights, as well as those of women and children.   She is the founder and leader of the Association for Support of Children's Rights in Iran.   Ebadi has written a number of academic books and articles focused on human rights.   Among her books translated into English are The Rights of the Child.   A Study of Legal Aspects of Children's Rights in Iran (Tehran, 1994), published with support from UNICEF, and History and Documentation of Human Rights in Iran (New York, 2000).

    As a lawyer, she has been involved in a number of controversial political cases.   She was the attorney of the families of the writers and intellectuals who were victims of the serial murders in 1999-2000.   She has worked actively - and successfully - to reveal the principals behind the attack on the students at Tehran University in 1999 where several students died.   As a consequence, Ebadi has been imprisoned on numerous occasions.

    With Islam as her starting point, Ebadi campaigns for peaceful solutions to social problems, and promotes new thinking on Islamic terms.   She has displayed great personal courage as a lawyer defending individuals and groups who have fallen victim to a powerful political and legal system that is legitimized through an inhumane interpretation of Islam.   Ebadi has shown her willingness and ability to cooperate with representatives of secular as well as religious views.



    (Source: The Norwegian Nobel Committee)

    © Aftenposten Multimedia.
























     







     
    Payvand's Iran News ...

     
    10/15/03
    Shirin White Roses: Shirin Ebadi is with us and she is one of us!
    By Syma Sayyah, Tehran

    The beautiful creamy moon light brightened this city of ours tonight.   However, the light was coming from another direction, this one was brighter, stronger and had tremendous energy.

    The core of Iranians' much-extended middle class Tehranies were at the airport tonight.   Students, teachers, doctors, nurses, writers, journalists, artists, engineers, taxi drivers, housewives, retired people, factory owners and workers, managers, handicapped in chairs and even a couple of babies in their prams were all there.




    Photo by Syma Sayyah


    This was truly unprecedented since that of the Air France passenger's arrival so many years ago.

    But the air, mixture of people, and may be because we were all there to greet and welcome a Lady of our time, reminded me of the March 8th 1979 when women, without any organizations, got together and staged the very first demonstration under the new regime from Tehran university to Shahyad square which is near the airport.

    It was a great sense of nostalgia out there, for me at least, but I am sure I was not alone.


    We checked it with many people who were familiar with crowd size and we took an average, there were about 20,000-25,000 people, give and take a couple of thousand max.




    Photo by Syma Sayyah


    I got home from my meeting just after 7:00 PM.   I had arranged with my friends to meet in one place so that we could all leave together around 8:00 PM, as the plane was to land about 9:30.

    I booked the taxi and told the agency that we would be keeping the cab for many hours.   We had decided to take as few cars as possible.

    By 8:00 the taxis had arrived, and a couple of friends were there with me, Golli a prominent writer & scholar and Ramin a very successful businessman.

    Two of the others were stuck in the traffic and three phoned to say that they go there by separate taxis.   Two others who wanted to come were persuaded to stay home, as they were very ill with the terrible flu that has been going on Tehran recently.

    We got to the airport just under 9:00 PM.   We saw people parking their cars as we came down the bridge from Ekbatan (a huge building complex which is almost a town).

    It took us quite a few minutes to get down the airport's main entrance road; there we got off and agreed with the driver to meet there some times later.   There were people moving in all directions, as we started.   The officers were telling people that SHE will arrive in terminal 3, but not many believed them!

    Eventually the word got around that this was correct.   Before we headed that way, I saw many police officers moving about and two groups of soldiers half-sitting half-standing near the junction between the terminals' road.   It did make me feel a little uneasy and worried.   Thankfully, they were there for our safety and all went well!




    Photo by Syma Sayyah


    Everybody had come on his or her own initiatives.   Somehow, the word had gotten around that as a sign of celebration for this wonderful and special occasion, ladies were to wear white or light/bright color head covers.

    Almost everybody had done so, Golli convinced me to change my usual black one that I wear as a sign of quiet protest!


    On our way, we had bought about 200 whites roses to throw on her path.   As we were walking towards the terminal, Ramin kindly obliged a few ladies with a flower each.   Then others came and asked for a white rose.   We looked at each other and decided without saying much that these are Shirin Roses, so we gave them almost all to everybody that we passed.

    Many others had done the same and had brought their own flowers.   I found Ladies wearing white head-scarf with a white flower in their hand, a most moving sign of hope.

    Yet, it sent shivers down my spine.   We have been here before some 7 years back.   People's hopes and expectations did not come true as it was supposed to have.

    My heart deeply aches for Ms. Ebadi who has to carry on her shoulders the burden of hopes of so many thousands of her fellow country folks.

    I wish her strength, vitality and power to carry this heavy task before her.

    She knows that she can count on so many and we are all behind her like a wall of support, help and love.   But it's her hour and her call.

    The good thing, this time, is that not only she is with us but she is also one of us too!





    Photo by Syma Sayyah


    At the airport, it was so moving, mother and daughters, aunts and uncles, fathers and sons, husbands and wives, friends and colleagues all alike.

    There were so many people scattered all around the huge parking lot.   It felt like that we were all members of the same family.

    On our way, someone somewhat jokingly asked:  "is it true that the princess is coming!"

    So many times people started to clap yet there was no sign of them.   Eventually at about 10:30 PM she came out very briefly and said a few things, but I doubt if anyone heard what she said.

    It did not matter; we shall read it tomorrow, what mattered most was that we were there.

    The so many thousands of us from different walks of life.   I saw people I had not seen for very long time.   It was indeed very great to feel the bound that had brought us all there.

    Jaye shoma kahli (we missed you!) but your spirits were there!





    Photo by Syma Sayyah




    Here are some of the slogans that people kept repeating:

    • Zendani seyasi azad bayad gardadd — political prisoners must be freed
    • Zedeh-bad zan'e Irani, zedeh bad Shirin'e Ebadi — Long live Iranian Women,  Long Live Shirin Ebadi
    • Afsaneh Norouzi Azad bayed gardadd — Afsaneh Norouzi must be freed — she is sentenced to death for killing a man.   A big demonstration for her case was to be held tomorrow in Park Lalah, but since it was not given the necessary permit it cannot take place.
    • Ebadi Nazanian, omid Iran zamin — Dearest Ebadi,  hope of Iran
    • Banouye solh-e Iran, or Safir solh-e Iran, khosh amandi be Iran — Iran's lady of peace, welcome to Iran
    • Azadi andishe, hamishe; hamishe — free thoughts/thinking,  always,  always
    • Seyahi haya koun, mamlekat-ra rahha koun — shame on blackness,  leave the Country
    • Ebadi biya biroun, toukeh mara koushti —  Ebadi please come out,  You killed us — waiting
    • Soghatie Ebadi, solh, dousti, azadi — Ebadi's present,  peace,  friendship and freedom


    Iran's National anthem that was written by late Dr Golgolab,  aye-iran —  aye-marze-pur-kohar,  was also being song by people,  although not always together,  from the beginning to the end.




    Photo by Syma Sayyah


    Towards the end as we were leaving the parking lot, there were couple of banners by supporters of the regime.

    People started to bow them together, but others asked them to leave them be.

    I saw a young lady throw some old flowers at them.   I loudly asked her to kindly refrain from doing so, because in a democratic society everybody should have a right to express himself or herself.

    She said but they do not know anything about democracy,  and I replied "dearest,  but we do and we must stand by our principle."

    By 11:30 the airport was back to normal and we all headed home in the taxi.




     









    Iranian Children's Rights society




         Nobel Peace Prize Lecture Wangari Maathai — Tree Planter     




    Children's rights are the same as human rights
    Human rights in Iran, without discrimination for all human beings





    US missiles — US money — and Palestine




    Images of Nobel Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi in Oslo
    Iranian democracy activist Shirin Ebadi, the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize





    Shirin Ebadi and Mohsen Rahami along with several others arrested; closed hearing Saturday 15 July 2000




    I will not vote myself




    Muslim girls talk about headscarf as part of hijab




    Shirin Ebadi Nobel Peace Prize winner blasts human rights abuse in West countries US and UK
    All people are entitled to fundamental rights, and at a time when Islam is being demonised in many quarters.... 





    September 11 9/11 exploited to break law - Shirin Ebadi to give prize money to Iran human rights groups





    JM Coetzee, Shirin Ebadi, Nobel Prize Winners
    Nobel Peace Prize winner slams war on terror





    Shirin Ebadi — Nobel Peace Prize winner




    More on Iran




    Iranian Children's Rights society




    “Orryvoyer” whispered the urchin.   “Orryvoyer.”




    The Book of Merlyn — “Perhaps it will be necessary to limit private incomes on a generous scale, for fear that very rich people might become a kind of nation in themselves”




    The beating of the drum — A condemnation of Mass Murder









    Images of the ongoing wars




    ‘and the circus of deception continues...’








     
    Payvand's Iran News ...

     
    Shirin Ebadi in her first news conference after return to Iran denounces violence

    In her first news conference after returning to Iran, Shirin Ebadi said the Iranians seek peace and despise violence, Iranian Students News Agency (ISNA) reported from Tehran. Ms. Ebadi also stated that her prize belongs to all the people who have worked and are working for human rights, democracy and peace in Iran.



    Photo: ISNA


    شيرين عبادي در نشست مطبوعاتي تهران- ما ملتي صلح طلب هستيم و از خشونت بي‌زار هستيم 
    خبرگزاري دانشجويان ايران - تهران
    ISNA: www.isna.ir
    سرويس فقه و حقوق

    شيرين عبادي در اولين كنفرانس مطبوعاتي خود در تهران با انتقاد از تئوري‌پردازان برخورد تمدن‌ها، نسبت به كساني كه جنگ‌افروزي را نظريه پردازي مي‌كنند، انتقاد كرد.
    به گزارش خبرنگار خبرگزاري دانشجويان ايران (ايسنا)، شيرين عبادي، برنده‌ي جايزه‌ي صلح نوبل كه شب گذشته به ايران بازگشت، ساعت 10 صبح امروز (چهارشنبه) در يك كنفرانس مطبوعاتي در محل كانون مدافعان حقوق بشر، گفت: از اين‌كه اين قطره‌ي كوچك از درياي خروشان عدالت‌خواهي مردم ايران را سپاس نهاديد و لطف كرديد تبريك گفتيد، سپاسگزارم.



    Photo: ISNA



    وي افزود: اين جايزه از آن من تنها نيست،‌ متعلق به تمام افرادي است كه براي ارتقاي حقوق بشر، دموكراسي و صلح در ايران فعاليت كرده‌اند و مي‌كنند.
    عبادي ادامه داد: من وظيفه داشتم كه پيام صلح هم‌وطنان را به گوش جهانيان برسانم و بگويم ملت شريف ايران از خشونت، جنگ و درگيري،‌ بيزار است. مردم، حرف خود را با منطق و در لفافه‌اي از عشق و محبت بيان مي‌كنند.
    اين جايزه‌ي پر ارزش، چندين معنا داشت؛ اول اينكه دنيا قبول كرد كه راه صلح از حقوق بشر مي‌گذرد، چگونه مي‌شود انتظار داشته باشيم حقوق بشر در جامعه، كشور و دنيا صدمه ببيند و جنگي صورت نگيرد؟ در مقدمه‌ي اعلاميه‌ي جهاني حقوق بشر مي‌خوانيم براي اينكه جنگ ديگري رخ ندهد، دولت‌ها موظف هستند حقوق بشر را رعايت كنند، پس فلسفه‌ي بنيادين حقوق بشر، جلوگيري از جنگ است.
    وي درباره‌ي مفهوم حقوق بشر‌ گفت: چون ايراني هستم، اجازه دهيد اين مفهوم حقوق را با كلام زيباي حافظ عرض كنم. ساقي به جام عدل بده باده تا گدا غيرت نياورد كه جهان پربلا كند
    وقتي ما به حقوق انسان‌ها، حق حيات، آزادي، دادسري عادلانه، حق برخورداري راي، زندگي مرفه و ساير حقوق توجه نكنيم، كساني‌كه به حقوقشان تعدي شده، ممكن است كه در مقطعي چيزي نگويند اما به قول حافظ «جهان پر بلا كنند».
    عبادي در ادامه اظهار داشت: با اهداي اين جايزه به يك فعال حقوق بشر، اين مفهوم مورد تاييد جهان قرار گرفت و اين براي من بسيار پرارزش است و به من و ساير فعالان حقوق بشر نيرو مي‌دهد كه اكنون دريافتيم اعتقاد ديرينه‌مان مورد تاييد جهان نيز هست، پس با گام‌هاي مصمم‌تري پيش خواهيم رفت.
    وي تصريح كرد: اعطاي جايزه‌ي صلح به يك زن مسلمان، معنايي را در بر دارد و آن اين است كه اسلام دين ترور نيست؛ اسلام دين كشتن نيست.‌ در هر كجا كه به اسم اسلام انسان‌ها را كشتند، بدانيد از نام اسلام سوءاستفاده مي‌كنند، اسلام دين صلح و برابري است و جهان آن را تاييد كرد.
    عبادي گفت: مفتخرم، يكي از اولين كساني كه به من تبريك گفتند، عالي جناب پاپ، رهبر كاتوليك‌هاي جهان بود.
    اين پيام نه به من، بلكه بين به مسلمانان بود يعني بين اسلام و مسيحيت مساله‌اي نبوده است.




    Photo: ISNA



    اين وكيل دادگستري اظهار داشت: قرن‌ها مذاهب مختلف در كنار هم زندگي مي‌كردند؛ پس چه شد كه يكباره عده‌اي تئوري‌پرداز برخورد تمدن‌ها شدند و جنگ را توجيه كردند؟ مسلمان با ساير مذاهب با مسالمت‌ و صلح رفتار مي‌كند و آنها را قبول دارد. برخورد تمدن‌ها چه معني دارد؟ نظر مي‌پردازند كه جنگ افروزي كنند.
    عبادي تاكيد كرد: پيام اسلام اين است «عشق، ‌دوستي، برابري»؛ افتخار مي‌كنم كه كميته‌ي صلح نوبل اين معنا را پذيرفت و افتخار مي‌كنم كه پاپ با پيام خودش بر اين پيام عشق مسلمانان تاكيد كرد.
    وي با بيان اينكه اعطاي اين جايزه معناي ديگري نيز داشته است، گفت: اين جايزه را به يك زن مسلمان شرقي دادند كه در حقيقت تاييدي بود بر مبارزات حق‌طلبانه و انسان‌مدارانه‌ي زنان مسلمان جهان.
    عبادي گفت: زنان مسلمان جهان خواهان بهبود وضعيت حقوقي خود هستند و بر اين باورند كه اگر ستمي در يك كشور مسلمان بر آنها مي‌رود، از فرهنگ مردسالار مي‌آيد و نه از مذهب؛ ما با مذهب مساله و مشكلي نداريم؛ اين ستم از فرهنگ مردم‌سالار مي‌آيد كه تفسير خود را از شريعت اسلام اين گونه داده است.
    اين وكيل دادگستري تاكيد كرد كه زنان مسلمان، خواهان ارتقاي وضعيت خود هستند و جهان با اعطاي جايزه‌ي نوبل اين معني را قبول كرد.
    عبادي تصريح كرد: اين مطالب ما را بر اين مي‌دارد كه در راهي كه رفتيم، استوارتر باشيم و بدانيم كه به خطا نرفته‌ايم، توانستيم فرياد رساي مسلمانان صلح‌دوست و عدالت‌جوي جهان را به گوش ساير مذاهب نيز برسانيم.
    وي سپس به فعاليت‌هاي خود در زمينه‌ي حقوق بشر اشاره كرد و گفت: از چند سال قبل، علاوه بر كارهاي تئوري ‌كه در زمينه‌ي حقوق بشر كرده بودم و انتشار كتاب‌هايم كه سه تاي آنها به زبان انگليسي ترجمه شده و در دانشگاه‌ها تدريس مي‌شوند، فكر كردم كه بايد وارد عمل هم شويم. حقوق بشر براي من از كودكان شروع شده است، چون آنها كمتر سخنگو دارند؛ اولين NGO كودكان را به همراه تعدادي از دوستان پي‌ريزي كرديم.
    عبادي تاكيد كرد: بايد گله‌هاي گذشته را فراموش كنيم، به آينده بنگريم، كودكان نيازهايي دارند كه در اولويت‌ برنامه‌ها حقوق كودكان قرار دارد؛ افتخار مي‌كنم كه يكي از موسسان انجمن دفاع از حقوق كودك هستم. پس از اين كه با همت و غيرت اعضاي فعال انجمن حمايت از كودكان راهش را ادامه داد،‌ احساس كردم نياز آنها به من كمتر شده لذا از رياست انجمن حمايت از حقوق كودكان، علي‌رغم خواست آنها كنار آمدم و به عنوان مشاور حقوقي، در كنار انجمن باقي ماندم.
    وي افزود: اوضاع ايران و جهان، به كيفيتي بود كه طلب مي‌كرد يك NGO كامل مستقل در زمينه‌ي حقوق بشر در ايران تاسيس شود. با همفكري تعدادي از دوستان كه رهرو صديق حقوق بشر بوده‌اند و مهمترين پرونده‌هاي سياسي و مطبوعاتي را در اين كشور اداره مي‌كردند و به ياري خدا، كانون مدافعان حقوق بشر را پي‌ريزي كرديم، هدف ما اين بود كه به وضعيت حقوقي بشر در ايران با ديدي تخصصي و كاملا بي‌طرف نه نگاه كنيم، زيرا كه گزارش‌هايي درباره‌ي حقوق بشر در ايران را احساس مي‌كرديم صاقدانه نبود، يا بسيار سياه و يا بسيار سفيد بود.
    عبادي تصريح كرد: همواره، سعي كرديم در طي يك سال كه كانون تاسيس شده است، انصاف و عدالت را سرلوحه‌ي كار خود قرار دهيم، عينك بدبيني را برداريم و واقع بينانه مسائل را تجزيه و تحليل كنيم.
    مهمترين كار كانون، علاوه بر نگاه بيطرفانه به مسائل حقوق بشر در ايران، قبول پرونده‌هايي در محاكم است كه در صورت لزوم، همكاران در اين زمينه صحبت خواهند كرد.
    عبادي ادامه داد: ببخشيد كه كارهايي كه انجام دادم، زياد نبوده اما توان من اين بود؛ سعي كردم با تمام توان كوشش كنم. ياد داستاني مي‌افتم كه مي‌گويند قصر سليمان نبي آتش گرفته بود، گنجشكي كوچك قطره‌ي آبي به منقار گرفته بود و به سوي آن پرواز مي‌كرد. گفتند چه مي‌كني، گفت: آب مي‌خواهم به اين آتش برسم، گفتند اين قطره فايده دارد؟ وقتي سليمان مي‌سوزد، فقط همين كار را مي‌توانم كنم. من هم آنچه در توان داشتم انجام دادم، سعي مي‌كنم با همكاري دوستان، فعاليت‌هاي خود را گسترش دهيم تا حداقل به خودمان ثابت كنيم كه لياقت دريافت اين جايزه را داشتيم.
    عبادي سپس گفت: من پيام صلح و دوستي ايرانيان را به جهان اعلام مي‌كنم، ما ملتي صلح طلب هستيم، ما از خشونت بيزاريم، ما ترور را محكوم مي‌كنيم، ما با ساير اديان در ستيز نيستيم و در زمينه‌ي داخلي، آرزومندم هرچه زودتر، زندانيان مطبوعاتي و سياسي آزاد شوند. اجازه دهيد با همه‌ي فرزندان اين مرز و بوم، ايران آباد و آزاد بسازيم.




    Photo: ISNA



    شيرين عبادي در ادامه‌ي نشست مطبوعاتي امروز در تهران به پرسش‌هاي خبرنگاران داخلي و خارجي پاسخ داد.
    به گزارش خبرنگار خبرگزاري دانشجويان ايران (ايسنا) عبادي در پاسخ به پرسشي مبني بر اينكه آيا به عرصه‌ي سياسي وارد خواهيد شد، گفت: اگر ورود به عرصه‌ي سياست را دستيابي به قدرت معني كنيد، خداوند آن روز را براي من نياورد اما خطاب فعالان حقوق بشر به حكومت‌هاست،‌ متاسفانه اين مقوله را برخي ورود به سياست معني‌ مي‌كنند.
    وي افزود: فعال حقوق بشر در هر كشور بايد سخنگوي افراد خاموش جامعه باشد كه حقوق بنيادين آنها تخطي شده است؛ من هرگز افتخار خدمتگزاري در زمينه‌ي حقوق بشر را از خودم دريغ نمي‌كنم.
    عبادي در پاسخ به پرسش ديگري درباره‌ي واكنش رييس‌جمهور كه در برخي رسانه‌ها منتشر شده است،‌ گفت: فرمايش آقاي خاتمي، اظهار عقيده‌هاي ايشان بود؛ راجع به جايزه‌ي صلح نوبل هر كسي آزاد است كه هر عقيده‌اي را بيان كند لذا مطلبي را ندارم بگويم، اعتقاد ايشان است و من به آن احترام مي‌گذارم.
    عبادي درباره‌ي چگونگي ادامه‌ي فعاليتش گفت: گسترش فعاليت‌هايمان در چارچوب قانون خواهد بود؛ همانطور كه از بدو تاسيس كانون مدافع حقوق بشر قانوني عمل كرده‌ايم و به قانون احترام مي‌گذاريم، در چارچوب قوانين رسمي دولت جمهوري اسلامي ايران فعاليت خواهيم كرد؛ البته هر جا كه قانون نيازمند بازنگري باشد، با ديد كارشناسانه و صرفا تشخيص فارغ از ديدگاه‌هاي سياسي در اين حيطه وارد شده‌ايم و مي‌شويم، زيرا حقوقدانيم و اظهارنظر در مورد قانون، يكي از وظايف ماست.
    عبادي در پاسخ به پرسش ديگر مبني بر اينكه فعاليت‌هاي خود را چگونه ادامه مي‌دهيد، گفت: اعطاي اين جايزه، بار سنگيني بر دوش من گذاشت زيرا بايد حداقل خود را براي دريافت اين جايزه راضي كنم، پس نه تنها فعاليتم را كم نمي‌كنم بلكه بيشتر مي‌كنم. در مورد دفاع از زندانيان سياسي همچون گذشته ادامه مي‌دهيم.
    وي در مورد پرونده‌ي هاشم آقاجري، با بيان اينكه وي وكيل دارد، گفت: وكيل ايشان تا به حال زحمت‌هاي زيادي كشيده‌اند. در مورد پرونده‌ي زهرا كاظمي هنوز چيزي به من گفته نشده، در آن صورت بررسي مي‌كنم.
    وي درباره‌ي اولويت‌هايش گفت: به هيچ وجه روش قبلي را عوض نخواهم كرد زيرا اعطاي اين جايزه به من نشان داد كه راه و روش درست بوده است؛ اولويت، كار تخصصي و كارشناسانه در مورد بازنگري در قوانين ماست و خواست ما همواره اين بوده كه دولت جمهوري اسلامي ايران به تعهدات بين‌المللي‌اش در زمينه‌ي حقوق بشر احترام بگذارد و آن را رعايت كند. ما ميثاق بين‌المللي حقوق مدني و سياسي و نيز اقتصادي و اجتماعي و بسياري از كنوانسيون‌هاي مربوطه به حقوق بشر را پذيرفته‌ايم و به اجراي آن متعهديم. زمان آن است كه به تعهداتمان عمل كنيم.
    وي در پاسخ به پرسشي درباره‌ي برخي اظهارنظرها در جرايد داخلي در مورد دريافت جايزه صلح نوبل گفت: اميدوارم همه با هم متحد براي پيشبرد حقوق بشر كار كنيم. شكر خدا، امروز كه مشكلي نيست؛ اگر پيش آمد، عرض خواهم كرد.




    Photo: ISNA



    عبادي در پاسخ به پرسشي مبني بر ارزيابي وضعيت حقوق بشر و دموكراسي در ايران در مقايسه با ساير كشورهاي منطقه و كشورهاي اسلامي گفت: اساسا جواب به اين گونه سوالات دشوار است؛ زيرا كدام كشور اسلامي را ملاك بگيرم؛ آيا عربستان را ببينم و يا امارات متحده عربي را؛ كويت يا مصر را. بنابراين به اين سوال نمي‌توانم جواب دقيقي بدهم اما كلا در كشورهاي اسلامي اميدوارم وضعيت حقوق بشر ارتقا يابد و نيز در ايران.
    وي درباره‌ي احساس خود در زمان دريافت جايزه، گفت: من حتي از اين كه نامم براي اين جايزه به آنجا رفته بود، بي‌اطلاع بودم. قبلا خبري در روزنامه‌ي ياس نو نوشته بود كه از ايران يوسفي اشكوري، آقاجري و شيرين عبادي، اسمشان در بين كانديدها بود و در همان روزنامه نوشته بود كه در گزينش‌هاي اوليه اسم عبادي و اشكوري رد شده و آقاجري به فينال رسيده است اما احتمال دارد كه پاپ برنده‌ي اين جايزه شود لذا پس از شنيدن برنده شدن، تعجب كردم.
    به گزارش ايسنا شيرين عبادي در پاسخ به پرسش ديگري گفت: انشاالله فعاليتهاي خود را دقيقا به شكل سابق دنبال خواهم كرد و اميدوارم هرگز در مسند قدرت نباشم.
    به اعتقاد وي فعال حقوق بشر نبايد جزء حاكمان باشد، در هر كشوري؛ زيرا خطاب حقوق بشر به حكومتهاست، پس يك فعال حقوق بشر چگونه مي‌تواند وارد حكومت شود.
    وي خاطرنشان كرد: در اساسنامه كانون مدافعان حقوق بشر پيش‌بيني شده است كه هركس به قدرت وارد شود، بايد استعفا دهد، ما هرگز در پي كسب قدرت نيستيم.
    عبادي درباره‌ي رعايت نكردن حجابش در زمان كنفرانس مطبوعاتي‌اش در لندن گفت: قوانين جزايي، درون مرزي هستند، طبق قانون دولت جمهوري اسلامي ايران، رعايت حجاب براي زناني كه در ايران به سر مي‌برند ضروري است من به قانون احترام مي‌گذارم و حجاب سر مي‌كنم و اما اينكه با اين پول چه مي‌كنم، هنوز براي پاسخ به اين پرسش زود است، زيرا تصميم خاصي نگرفته‌ام، اما مي‌دانم كه در راه پيشبرد اهدافي كه از قبل داشته‌ام، خرج خواهد شد.
    وي درباره فعاليت‌هاي آينده‌اش نيز گفت: اگر منظور از آينده سياسي اين است كه داخل قدرت و يا حكومت شوم، به كرات عرض كرده‌ام كه فعال حقوق بشر بايد دور از قدرت و در داخل مردم باشد زيرا بايد سخنگوي افراد خاموش جامعه باشد.




    Photo: ISNA



    وي در ارزيابي پيام‌هاي تبريك از سوي مسوولان برخي از كشورهاي غربي گفت: هر كس مسوول اعمال و سخنان خودش است. شما نمي‌توانيد معنا و مفهوم كلام ديگري را از من سوال كنيد. همان گونه كه درباره نظرهاي مخالف در داخل پرسيدند، چنين است.
    عبادي درباره حضور آمريكا در منطقه و دخالت عراق و نيز كشتار ملت فلسطين، از سوي رژيم صهيونيستي گفت: بر اين اعتقادم كه سرنوشت هر كشور را همان ملت تعيين مي‌كند، هيچ كشوري حق ندارد به بهانه دموكراسي، حقوق بشر و صلح، در مسائل داخلي كشورها دخالت كند، پيشبرد حقوق بشر از طريق تانك و ابزارهاي جنگي امكانپذير نيست. از طريق همان ملت است. اميدوارم با انتخابات آزاد زير نظر سازمان ملل، هرچه زودتر اداره عراق از سوي مردم آن كشور صورت گيرد. در مورد فلسطين نيز بايد گفت، حديث نابرابر سنگ است با گلوله.
    عبادي درباره حقوق زنان گفت: اعطاي اين جايزه به يك زن مسلمان شرق، از ديد من اين طور معنا مي‌دهد كه جهان مبارزات حق‌طلبانه، انسان‌مدارانه و آزادي‌خواهان زنان مسلمان را به رسميت مي‌شناسد، لذا اميدوارم شاهد بهبود وضعيت حقوق زنان در كشورهاي مسلمان باشيم.
    اين وكيل دادگستري در مورد احساس خود در زمان دريافت جايزه صلح نوبل گفت:‌ وقتي به من تلفني اعلام كردند، چون حتي از كانديداتوري خودم بي‌اطلاع بودم، با ترديد به آن توجه كردم ولي وقتي اسم خود را شنيدم، شگفت‌زده و طبيعتا خوشحال و مفتخر شدم.
    وي درباره كنوانسيون رفع هرگونه تبعيضي عليه زنان، گفت: اميدواريم دولت جمهوري اسلامي ايران به كنوانسيون رفع هرگونه تبعيض عليه زنان بپيوندد.
    وي با اشاره به پيوستن ايران به برخي ميثاق‌هاي بين‌المللي، افزود: چون سرفصل اين ميثاق‌ها، برابري انسان‌ها صرفنظر از جنسيت، مليت، مذهب، نژاد و جايگاه اقتصادي و اجتماعي است، پيوستن به اين كنوانسيون بين‌المللي ادامه تعهدات بين‌المللي ايران است.
    عبادي در پاسخ به پرسشي درباره فعاليت‌هاي هسته‌اي ايران، گفت: من بر اين باورم كه دولت ايران بمب اتمي ندارد. نه دولت ايران و نه هيچ كشوري در جهان، نياز به بمب اتمي هم ندارد. اميدوارم با همكاري‌ها و مذاكراتي كه با سازمان بين‌المللي انرژي هسته‌اي مي‌شود، ثابت شود و اين مساله حل شود.
    وي درباره‌ اولويت‌هاي بررسي قوانين گفت: قوانين مربوط به زنان، در اولويت بازنگري و اصلاح كارشناسانه است. همچنين قوانيني كه مربوط است به حقوق بنيادين انسان‌ها، اما تكرار مي‌كنم پس از كارشناسي و بازنگري عده‌اي از محققان و حقوقدانان.
    عبادي درباره مراسم استقبال از خود گفت: من شرمسار محبت مردم هستم، ضمنا خجالت‌زده هستم، زيرا قرار بود بعد از صحبت كوتاهي با مردم در فرودگاه مهرآباد به ميان آنها بروم، محبت دوستان آنچنان بود كه اين امكان را از من گرفت؛ حتي به خاطر ترافيك استقبال كنندگان، يك ساعت و نيم طول كشيد تا به منزل رسيدم. ديدن اين لطف، من را بيش از پيش شرمنده كرد.
    من از طرف مردم شريف ايران براي استقبال از خدمتگزار كوچكشان، سپاسگذاري مي‌كنم و نيز از كساني كه نظم و انتظامات فرودگاه را رعايت كردند، سپاسگذارم.
    عبادي درباره محدوديت ايران در دستيابي به حقوق بشر گفت: كانون مدافعان حقوق بشر در همه زمينه‌هاي حقوق بشر، تمام مسائل را ارزيابي كرد، و اين شيوه را ادامه خواهد داد. در زمينه حقوق بشر، هر چيزي اولويت دارد؛ همه حقوق بنيادين بشر در اولويت هستند.



    Photo: ISNA



    *** در حاشيه كنفرانس مطبوعاتي شيرين عبادي
    - به گزارش ايسنا در ابتداي اين كنفرانس، محمدعلي دادخواه، عضو كانون مدافعان حقوق بشر، با قرائت متني از سوي اين كانون، دريافت جايزه صلح نوبل به شيرين عبادي را افتخار بزرگ همراه با غرور ملي خواند و عبادي را بانوي صلح ايران ناميد.
    وي با بيان اينكه كانون مدافعان حقوق بشر، خواستار فعاليت عبادي در جهت عدالت و حقوق بشر است، مسووليت وي را از گذشته سنگين‌تر خواند.
    دادخواه مشكلات انسان امروز را ناشي از بي‌عدالتي دانست و گفت: در راه عدالت كوشا باشيد و واقع‌بينانه در راه سعادت مصلت بشر امروزي گام برداريد.
    - محمد سيف‌زاده از سوي كانون مدافعان حقوق بشر، نيز با تبريك دريافت جايزه صلح نوبل به شيرين عبادي، شعري خواند.
    - همچنين رستگار، رييس كانون وكلاي مستقل دادگستري، از سوي وكلاي دادگستري، گفت: اميد و انتظار داريم كه هم به عنوان يك وكيل دادگستري و نيز مدافع حقوق بشر گام‌ها را استوارتر، انديشه‌ها را فراتر در كل جامعه تسري دهيم و بدانيد كه وكلاي دادگستري با شما هستند و جامعه ايراني شما را همراهي خواهند كرد.
    - گيتي‌پور فاضل، وكيل دادگستري نيز از سوي وكلاي زن، با ابراز خشنودي از دريافت جايزه صلح نوبل به شيرين عبادي، گفت: درود بر تمام زنان ايراني.
    - حضور خبرنگاران و تصويربرداران خارجي در اين نشست چشم‌گير بود.




     










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